An Outline of Daniel

DANIEL
The Man of Vision

It is interesting to note that the Jews placed Daniel is in the book of Writings, rather than the Prophets.

Daniel in Babylon – Daniel 1:1-21

  1. Selected: How Daniel came to Babylon – Daniel 1:1-7 (Daniel’s Resolution)
    1. Conquered: Nebuchadnezzar over Jehoiakim – Daniel 1:1-2
    2. Captured: youths without defect – Daniel 1:3-5
    3. Candidates – Daniel 1:6-7
      1. Hebrew names: Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, Azariah
      2. Pagan names: Belteshazzar, Shadrach, Meshech, Abed-nego
  2. Steadfast: Daniel turns vegetarian – Daniel 1:8-16 (Daniel’s Recommendation)
  3. Statesman: God’s gifting and Their rise in favor – Daniel 1:17-21 Daniel’s Reward)
    1. Knowledge, intelligence, dreams, visions – Daniel 1:17
    2. Presentation to the king – Daniel 1:18
    3. Daniel and the boys are 10 times better – Daniel 1:20
    4. Daniel continued until the first year of Cyrus – Daniel 1:21

Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream of a Statue – Daniel 2:1-49, 7:1-28

  1. The Frustration of Nebuchadnezzar – Daniel 2:1-13
    1. The dream received by Nebuchadnezzar – Daniel 2:1-6
    2. The dream revealed by Daniel – Daniel 2:7-13
  2. The Revelation of God – Daniel 2:14-30
    1. The dream replied, the prayer of Daniel – Daniel 2:14-23
    2. The dream recounted – Daniel 2:24-30, 7:1
  3. The Interpretation of Daniel – Daniel 2:31-45
    1. Chronology: The dream recited – Daniel 2:31-35, 7:2-14, 21-22
    2. Theology: The dream revealed – Daniel 2:36-45, 7:15-20, 23-27
      1. Neo-Babylonian empire (Nebuchadnezzar): 612-539 BC
        1. The head of gold – Daniel 2:32 * and lion – Daniel 7:4
          1. Lion: king of beasts
          2. Eagle: king of birds
          3. Gold: most precious metal
        2. Nebuchadnezzar’s empire, the head of gold – Daniel 2:38, 7:17
      2. Medo-Persian empire (Cyrus the Great): 539-331 BC
        1. Breast/arms of silver – Daniel 2:32 * and bear – Daniel 7:5
          1. Bear is inferior to the lion – Daniel 2:39, 7:17
          2. Raised up on one side
          3. Ready for attack
        2. One horn being most powerful
        3. Three ribs in its mouth – Daniel 7:5, 8:4
          1. West: Babylon conquered by Cyrus
          2. North: Lydia conquered by Cyrus
          3. South: Egypt conquered by Cambyses
      3. Grecian empire: 331-323 BC
        1. Belly/thighs of bronze – Daniel 2:32 * and leopard – Daniel 7:6
          1. Four wings: swiftness in conquering
          2. Four heads: the generals after Alexander
            1. Ptolemy I – took Egypt (South)
            2. Philip, Cassander, Antigonus – took Macedonia and Greece
            3. Seleucus I – took Syria (North)
            4. Lysimacus – took Thrace & Asia Minor
        2. Inferior but will rule over all the earth – Daniel 2:39. 7:17
      4. The Selucid Empire: 312-65 BC
        1. Leg/iron, feet/clay – Daniel 2:40 * diverse – Daniel 7:7, 19
        2. Strong as iron, later divided – Daniel 2:41
        3. Different than all the others – Daniel 7:23
        4. The ten toes and ten horns – Daniel 2:42, 7:7
          1. Kings are successive and not simultaneous
          2. Alexander conquered the world at age 33
          3. He died in 323 and signaled power struggles
          4. Horns and toes understood in relation to ancient Palestine
          5. This history is explained in Daniel 11:5-35
          6. The identification of the tens
            1. Seleucus I uproots three horns – Daniel 7:8
              1. Antigonus: Macedonia/Greece
              2. Ptolemy I: (323-285 BC): Egypt
              3. Lysimacus: Thrace & Asia Minor
            2. The seven remaining horns
              1. Seleucus I Nicator 312-280 BC
              2. Antiochus I Soter 280-262 BC
              3. Antiochus II Theos 262-246 BC
              4. Seleucus II Callinicus 246-226
              5. Seleucus III Soter 226-223 BC
              6. Antiochus III Great 223-187 BC
              7. Seleucus IV Philopator 187-175
            3. The little horn is the antichrist: Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175-163 BC
        5. The stone – Daniel 2:35, 7:27 * is Christ
        6. God’s kingdom – Daniel 2:44 * and Ancient of Days – Daniel 7:9
  4. The Prostration of Nebuchadnezzar: the dream and its effect – Daniel 2:46-49, 7:28
    1. Daniel’s God is worshipped by Nebuchadnezzar – Daniel 2:47
    2. Daniel is promoted – Daniel 2:48 * and alarmed – Daniel 7:28
    3. Daniel remembers his homies – Daniel 2:49

The Fiery Furnace, Test of Faith – Daniel 3:1-30

  1. Conspirators: the King’s Command – Daniel 3:1-7
    1. The project – Daniel 3:1
    2. The politicians – Daniel 3:2-3
    3. The proclamation – Daniel 3:4-5
    4. The penalty – Daniel 3:6-7
  2. Informers: the Chaldeans’ charge  – Daniel 3:8-12
    1. The report: the accusers tell the king – Daniel 3:8-12
    2. The reasoning: the kings gives a second chance – Daniel 3:13-15
  3. Transformers: the Children’s Confidence (the Hebrews Stand) – Daniel 3:16-30
    1. The demonstration of faith – Daniel 3:16-18
    2. The assurance of faith – Daniel 3:19-23
      1. The king enraged – Daniel 3:19
      2. The boys directed, into the extra hot furnace – Daniel 3:20-23
  4. Rescuer: The vindication of faith (the Lord’s Man) – Daniel 3:24-30
    1. The discovery – Daniel 3:24-25
    2. The deliverance – Daniel 3:26-28
    3. The decree – Daniel 3:29-30

Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream of a Tree – Daniel 4:1-37

  1. The Dream Described – Daniel 4:1-18
    1. The prologue, the king’s announcement and praise – Daniel 4:1-3
    2. The large and strong tree – Daniel 4:4-12
    3. The angelic lumberjack – Daniel 4:13-17
    4. The plea of the king – Daniel 4:18
  2. The Dream Interpreted – Daniel 4:19-27
    1. Explanation: pride will lead to judgment – Daniel 19-26
    2. Exhortation: repent and avoid judgment – Daniel 4:27
  3. The Dream Fulfilled – Daniel 4:28-37
    1. Pride: refusing to repent – Daniel 4:28-30
    2. Punishment: twelve months later comes insanity – Daniel 4:31-33
    3. Praise: his reasoning returned, honors God – Daniel 4:34-37

Belshazzar’s Feast – Daniel 5:1-31

  1. Belshazzar’s Contribution to the Feast: Unrestrained sensuality – Daniel 5:1-4
    1. The ball: thousands of people invited – Daniel 5:1
    2. The gall: using the sacred temple items – Daniel 5:2-4
  2. God’s Contribution to the Feast: The wall – the handwriting – Daniel 5:5-6
    1. The hand – Daniel 5:5
    2. The horror – Daniel 5:6
  3. Daniel’s Contribution to the Feast: The call – Announcement of doom – Daniel 5:7-29
    1. The call for the magicians – Daniel 5:7-9
    2. The queen calls for Daniel – Daniel 5:10-12
    3. Daniel’s explanation – Daniel 5:13-29
      1. Reputation of Daniel – Daniel 5:13-16
      2. Explanation by Daniel – Daniel 5:17-24
      3. Interpretation through Daniel – Daniel 5:25-29
  4. Darius’ Contribution to the Feast: The fall – Destruction of Babylon – Daniel 5:30-31

Daniel with the Lions – Daniel 6:1-28

  1. The Work Crisis: total integrity (an Evil Plan) – Daniel 6:1-3
  2. The Prayer Crisis – Daniel 6:4-17
    1. The plot – Daniel 6:4-9
      1. The search – Daniel 6:4
      2. The solution – Daniel 6:5
      3. The subtlety – Daniel 6:6-9
    2. The prayer (a Kneeling Man) – Daniel 6:10-11
    3. The prosecution – Daniel 6:12-17
  3. The Faith Crisis (a Heavenly Ban) – Daniel 6:18-28
    1. The protection – Daniel 6:18-23
      1. The king’s concern – Daniel 6:18
      2. The king’s cry – Daniel 6:19-22
      3. The king’s command – Daniel 6:23
    2. The proclamation – Daniel 6:24-28
      1. The accusers fate – Daniel 6:24
      2. The announcement that God is over the nations – Daniel 6:25-27
      3. The achievement of Daniel – Daniel 6:28

The Vision of Four Beasts – Daniel 7:1-28, 2:1-49
This is the First Year of Belshazzar’s Reign

  1. A Vision of World History – Daniel 7:1-8
    1. A lion-like beast – Daniel 7:1-4
    2. A bear-like beast – Daniel 7:5
    3. A leopard-like beast – Daniel 7:6
    4. A ten-horned beast – Daniel 7:7-8
  2. A Vision of Heaven – Daniel 7:9-14
    1. The Ancient One – Daniel 7:9-12
      1. Who it is: God himself – Daniel 7:9
      2. What happens – Daniel 7:10-12
        1. The river of fire – Daniel 7:10a
        2. The thousands of angels – Daniel 7:10b
        3. The millions of people – Daniel 7:10c
        4. The beast sent to hell – Daniel 7:11-12
    2. The Messiah – Daniel 7:13-14
      1. Who it is (first reference to Messiah as Son of Man) – Daniel 7:13
      2. What happens (given eternal, glorious kingdom) – Daniel 7:14
  3. A Vision of Saints on Earth – Daniel 7:15-28
    1. The four beasts in general – Daniel 7:15-18
      1. Their rise (Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome) – Daniel 7:15-17
      2. Their replacement (giving way to God’s kingdom) – Daniel 7:18
    2. The fourth beast in particular – Daniel 7:19-28
      1. The confusion: Daniel wants more info – Daniel 7:19-22
      2. The clarification: the facts about the beast – Daniel 7:23-27
        1. It will devour the earth – Daniel 7:23-24
        2. It will defy the Most High God – Daniel 7:25
        3. It will be destroyed by the Most High – Daniel 7:26-27
      3. The consternation: Daniel is alarmed – Daniel 7:28

The Ram and the Goat: (in Aramaic) – Daniel 8:1-27
This is the Third Year of Belshazzar’s Reign

  1. The Vision – Daniel 8:1-12
    1. The tw0-horned ram: able to defeat enemies – Daniel 8:1-4
    2. The one-horned male goat – Daniel 8:5-8
      1. Destruction: attacks the ram – Daniel 8:5-7
      2. Death: goat dies and replaced by four – Daniel 8:8
    3. Another creature coming from the goat – Daniel 8:9-12
      1. Conquests: he invades and occupies much of the Holy Land – Daniel 8:9-10
      2. Contempt: he even challenges God – Daniel 8:11-12
  2. The Interpretation – Daniel 8:13-25
    1. A regular angel – Daniel 8:13-14
      1. Question: How Long? – Daniel 8:13
      2. Answer: 2300 days – Daniel 8:14
    2. A ruling angel: (Gabriel himself – Daniel 8:15-19) – Daniel 8:15-27
      1. The ram: Medo-Persian empire – Daniel 8:20
      2. The goat: Grecian empire – Daniel 8:21-22
        1. The great horn: Alexander – Daniel 8:5, 21
        2. The great horn broken: Alexander died – Daniel 8:8, 21
        3. Four horns: Egypt Syria Macedonia Asia – Daniel 8:8, 22
      3. The little horn: Little horn: Antiochus IV Epiphanes – Daniel 8:8, 23-25
        1. Attempted to Hellenize the Jews
        2. Erected statue of Zeus in temple
        3. Sacrificed a pig on the altar
        4. Forbade circumcision
        5. Destroyed all OT books he could find
        6. Judas Maccabeus defeated the Syrian army
          1. Led revolt against Seleucid Empire (167–160 BC)
          2. The Jewish feast of Hanukkah commemorates the restoration of Jewish worship at the temple in Jerusalem in 164 BC.
        7. Tribulations are described in Hebrews 11:34-39
        8. He was the “antichrist”
        9. He performed the “abomination of desolation” in 167 BC
        10. Cast down: destroyer, persecutor – Daniel 8:10, 24
        11. Remove daily sacrifices: he did – Daniel 8:11
        12. 2300 days: many days of peace ends 171 BC – Daniel 8:14, 26
        13. Sanctuary closed: purification in 168 BC – Daniel 8:14
        14. He shall be broken: he died in 163 BC – Daniel 8:25
  3. The Effect on Daniel – Daniel 8:26-27
    1. Keep secret, it pertains to many days in the future: 400 years in the future.
    2. Daniel is exhausted and sick for days: there was none to explain it.

Daniel’s Earnest Prayer (the 70 Weeks) – Daniel 9:1-19
The Chapter Describes Two Time Periods: Historical, and Prophetic

  1. Insight – Daniel 9:1-2
    1. Daniel understood the desolation would come to an end as in the captivity – Jeremiah 25:11-12
    2. What will happen at the end of the 70 years?
  2. Intercession – Daniel 9:3-19
    1. Sin: the confession of Israel’s sin – Daniel 9:3-11
    2. Suffering: the consequences of rebellion – Daniel 9:12-14
    3. The request: the contention of Daniel – Daniel 9:15-19
  3. Instruction: (Daniel and Gabriel) – Daniel 9:20-23
  4. Interpretation – Daniel 9:24-27
    1. The details (70 sets of 7, 490 years) – Daniel 9:24
      1. First period (49 years, Jerusalem rebuilt) – Daniel 9:25
      2. Second period (434 years, Messiah will be crucified) – Daniel 9:26
      3. Third period (7 years, great tribulation?) – Daniel 9:27
    2. The intended target times?
      1. The time of Antiochus Epiphanes
      2. The first coming of Christ
      3. The second coming of Christ
    3. When does the author begin his calculations?
      1. The year after Jerusalem’s destruction (586 BC)
        1. 49 years later Babylon fell (539-538 BC)
        2. Cyrus allowed the Jews to return: the decree
        3. Zerubbabel could be a prince – see Luke 3:27
        4. Joshua was the High Priest – see Zechariah 6:11
      2. The year of the decree to return (458 BC)
        1. The letter of Artaxerxes – Ezra 7:7-11
        2. One 69 week period (not 7 and 62 weeks)
        3. The end of 69th is around the incarnation
      3. Target time is the second coming of Christ
        1. The gap theory: premillenial dispensationalism
        2. The period of time between weeks 69 and 70
        3. Reason: Matthew 24 (Mark 13) must take place
        4. The 69 weeks – Daniel 9:25
          1. Gap – Daniel 9:26
          2. Future – Daniel 9:27
      4. Target time is the first coming of Christ
        1. There is no distinction between 7 and 62 weeks – Daniel 9:25
          1. Decree under Ezra, not Nehemiah – Ezra 7:7-11
          2. Decree was 458, not 445 as in – Nehemiah 2:1
          3. End of 7 weeks is 409, nothing happened
          4. 69 weeks ends with Christ’s ministry
            1. AD 25-26
            2. 483 actual solar years after decree
          5. Objections
            1. Putting 69 weeks together – Daniel 9:25
            2. Which Artaxerxes?
        2. Jesus ministry was 1/2 week, death in AD 29
        3. The prince of Daniel 9:26 is Titus the destroyer AD 70
        4. Christ removed need for sacrifices – Daniel 9:27
      5. Target time is the time of Antiochus IV Epiphanes
        1. The entire passage is a reinterpretation of the 70 years of Jeremiah 25 and 29 as applied to the time of the suffering under Antiochus
          1. The word “restore” in Daniel 9:25 fits Jeremiah
          2. Life of returnees was difficult – Ezra 4:1-24
          3. The fall of Jerusalem came in 587 BC
          4. The captivity started in 586 BC
        2. The seven weeks refers to the Babylonian exile, 70 years.
          1. The ending would be in 537 BC
          2. One week calculation: 7 x 7 is 49 years
          3. Cyrus allows, but did not decree, Jews to return as in Nehemiah 2:1-8
            1. Decree – Ezra 6:3, 7-8 was about the temple
            2. Letter – Nehemiah 2:1-8 was building the walls
            3. Isaiah 44:28 says Cyrus will rebuild Jerusalem, see Daniel 5:13
          4. Zerubbabel led the first wave in 536 BC
            1. He was an anointed one Matthew 1:12-13
            2. He was a prince Haggai 1:1
          5. Joshua was the High Priest Ezra 3:2 and a colleague of Zerubbabel Haggai 1:1
        3. The 62 weeks refers to the three returns
          1. This time was longer than the captivity
          2. It was a troubled time – Daniel 9:25
        4. After the 69 weeks: Jews in control and worshiping in relative freedom
          1. The anointed one cut off: not same as – Daniel 9:25
          2. Legitimate line of priesthood cut off
            1. Joshua, the brother of Onias III, took the Greek name Jason and became High Priest by corruption (2 Macc 4:7-15)
            2. Later, Menelaus became High Priest by outbidding Jason by 300 talents of silver (2 Macc 4:23-24)
            3. Payment was demanded and Melelaus stole from the temple
            4. Onias III was faithful and exposed Menelaus
            5. Onias III was assassinated in 170 BC
          3. People of the prince: army of troops
          4. The prince who is to come is Antiochus IV Epiphanes: “desolations” refers to him
          5. Its end shall come with a flood: both the prince and the destruction – there’s hope!
          6. The strong covenant with many – Daniel 9:27
            1. Many Jews adopted false religion
            2. They removed proper sacrifices to God
            3. Sacrifices ended Dec 15, 168 BC
            4. Maccabean victory on Dec 25, 165 BC (3 years and 10 days)
          7. Abominations: Zeus Olympius in the temple whereby Antiochus became the desolator
          8. The decreed end of Antiochus – Daniel 9:27
            1. Complete destruction on him
            2. Curse of the Jews poured on him – Daniel 9:11
        5. The vile person has come to an end (climax of book)
          1. Daniel 9:26-27
          2. Daniel 11:21-45
        6. The book gives a basis for hope
          1. Through Scripture (Jeremiah)
          2. Through prayer
          3. Through confession
          4. Through faith
          5. Through revelation

Prelude to Prophecy – Daniel 10:1-11:1

  1. Daniel’s circumstances – Daniel 10:1-4
    1. Duration of his fast (three weeks) – Daniel 10:1-3
    2. Location of his fast (banks of the Tigris River) – Daniel 10:4
  2. Daniel’s collapse (and an angel appears) – Daniel 10:5-17
    1. The radiance: the vision of the man in fine linen – Daniel 10:5-6
    2. The reaction: Daniel feels weak, friends see nothing – Daniel 10:7-8
    3. The reassurance: the prayer was heard from the beginning – Daniel 10:9-12
    4. The revelation: instruction for the future – Daniel 10:14
    5. The resistance: the delay was due to angelic warfare – Daniel 10:13, 15-21
      1. Hostility (Michael delayed) – Daniel 10:13a, 15-20
        1. He was hindered by a demonic leader in Persia – Daniel 10:13a
        2. He will be hindered by a demonic leader of Greece – Daniel 10:15-20
      2. Helper (Michael) – Daniel 10:13b, 21
  3. Daniel’s convalesce – Daniel 10:18-11:1
    1. Gradual strengthening – Daniel 10:10, 16, 18-19
    2. More angelic warfare – Daniel 10:20-21
      1. The prince of Persia continues
      2. The prince of Greece is coming
    3. Daniel is an encouragement and protection for Darius the king of Mede – Daniel 11:1

A Vision of Kings – Daniel 11:2-12:4

  1. Persia (four kings) – Daniel 11:2
    1. Cambyses (son of Cyrus): 530-522 BC
    2. Pseudo-Smerdis (Guatama): 522 BC
    3. Darius I: 522-486 BC
    4. Xerxes (Ahasuerus of Esther): 486-465 BC
      1. Most powerful and affluent
      2. He fought the wars against Greece
  2. Greece (a mighty king) – Daniel 11:3-4
    1. The mighty king is Alexander the Great: 336-323 BC
    2. The four winds are generals after Alexander
  3. Egypt and Syria – Daniel 11:5-20
    1. The players – Daniel 11:5
      1. Ptolemy I Soter (South): 323-285 BC
      2. Seleucus I Nicator (North): 312-280 BC
    2. The alliance – Daniel 11:6
      1. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC) gave his daughter, Berenice, to marry Antiochus II Theos (262-246) to end a war between them.
        1. Antiochus II must divorce Laodice
        2. Any son of Berenice would become king
      2. The agreement did not last
        1. Ptolemy II died in 246 BC
        2. Antiochus II took back Laodice
        3. Laodice distrusted Antiochus and poisoned in attempt to
          have sons on the throne
        4. Laodice has Berenice and her son
    3. The retaliation – Daniel 11:7-8
      1. Ptolemy III Euergetes (246-221 BC) brother of Berenice, succeed his father
      2. He fought Seleucus II Callinicus (247-226 BC)
      3. Ptolemy III would have overrun the north if not for an insurrection back home
    4. The seesaw struggles – Daniel 11:9-20
      1. The latter is Seleucus II Callinicus went to invade Egypt (242 BC) after he regained power in Asia, the event being disastrous – Daniel 11:9
      2. His sons – Daniel 11:10
        1. Seleucus III Soter (226-223 BC) murdered
        2. Antiochus III the Great (223-187 BC) campaigns against Ptolemy IV (219 BC) and capture of a great part of the south.
        3. The enraged king of the south – Daniel 11:11 * is Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-205 BC) conquered the north in 217 BC but did not take the whole kingdom – Daniel 11:12
        4. After an interval – Daniel 11:13 * refers to 12 years of virtual peace
          1. Antiochus III raised a greater army than he previously had and attacks
          2. Ptolemy IV died and 5 year old Ptolemy V Epiphanes became king (205-181 BC)
          3. Many will come against him – Daniel 11:14
        5. Antiochus III take advantage on the infant king Ptolemy V – Daniel 14-16
          1. In league with Philip of Macedon (men of violence) to attack Ptolemy V
          2. Antiochus takes the south in 198 BC
          3. He who comes against him: is Antiochus III
          4. The Glorious Land: is Palestine (Sidon)
        6. Antiochus III set his face toward Egypt – Daniel 11:17
          1. He did not attack but brought terms of peace, through a marriage
          2. The daughter of women (the essence of femininity) is
            Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus III
          3. She was betrothed to Ptolemy V (197 BC)
            1. Antiochus III wanted influence
            2. Cleopatra was loyal to the south
        7. Antiochus III turns toward the coastlands – Daniel 11:18
          1. He controlled most of Asia Minor by 196 BC
          2. He met the representative in Rome who counseled him to leave Asia Minor alone.
          3. He told the Romans to stop interfering in Asia Minor just as he was not to touch Italy.
        8. The breaking point was invading Greece – Daniel 11:19
          1. He began the Greek invasion in 192 BC
          2. He was stopped by the Romans in 191 BC at Thermopylae
          3. The commander who put a stop to him is Lucius Cornelius Scipio (190 BC)
            1. Defeated 80,000 men at Magnesia
            2. Humiliated and ruined him as far as Europe and Asia Minor.
            3. The Romans demanded indemnity and he returned home to plunder his own territories and temple of Bel (187 BC)
        9. In his place – Daniel 11:20
          1. The son of Antiochus III was Seleucus IV Philopator (187-175 BC)
          2. The sent oppressor is Heliodorus, the Prime Minister of Seleucus IV as told in 2 Maccabees 3:1-40, or is a Roman tax gatherer
          3. He spent most of his time raising money to pay off his father’s war debts
          4. Seleucus IV was assassinated by Heliodorus by conspiracy, not face to face
  4. Antiochus Epiphanes (an evil Syrian king, 175-164 BC) – Daniel 11:21-45 (see next section)
    1. Captive: he was a hostage in Rome since 189 BC
      1. According to a treaty signed by his father, Antiochus III the Great in 198 BC
      2. Seleucus IV wanted him released and Demetrius, the rightful heir, the son of Seleucus IV took his place
      3. Epiphanes (God manifest) vs. Epimanes (madman)
    2. Craftiness: he took power through flattery and intrigue – Daniel 11:21-23
      1. He rushed back to Antioch when he heard of his brother’s death – Daniel 11:21, 23
      2. It was Onias III, the rightful High Priest (170 BC) Daniel 11:22
      3. He was one to understand riddles – Daniel 8:23
    3. Conquests: he captured powerful strongholds – Daniel 11:24
      1. He plundered his own people.
      2. He wanted to remove any thought of God from the Jews and replace it with Greek Culture
      3. The great comfort to hear “but for a time”
    4. Confrontation – Daniel 11:25-30
      1. With Egypt – Daniel 11:25-27
        1. Advantage in the death of his sister the queen, Cleopatra in 172 BC.
        2. Her sons (Philometor and Physcon) were both minors so the kingdom was run by two eunuchs named Eulaeus and Syrian Lenseus (26) those who eat his rich food.
        3. They convinced Philometor to go in battle, and the Alexandrian nobles set up Physcon as their king.
        4. The two kings: Philometor and Antiochus, his uncle – Daniel 11:27 Antiochus wanted his loyalty when he made Philometor the real king, But to no avail: the schemes failed.
        5. The “end” refers to Antiochus not lasting.
        6. His return to his own land with much plunder – Daniel 11:28
          1. Angered at not taking Egypt.
          2. Three envoys from Rome were coming.
          3. Disturbance by Jason’s attempt to retain the priesthood.
          4. Antiochus killed many Jews to prove he was still in power.
          5. He plundered the temple on his way back to Antioch.
      2. With Syria – Daniel 11:28-30
        1. At the “appointed time” means God in charge and this invasion was not as successful.
        2. The “ships of Kittim” are the peoples of Cyprus or the Mediterranean, or possibly refers to the Romans.
        3. He will be enraged and take it out on the Jews back in Jerusalem – Daniel 11:30.
        4. Some faithless, Hellenistic Jews will side with him.
    5. Cruelty: a hellish hatred of Israel – Daniel 11:31-35
      1. Desecration of the temple – Daniel 11:31
      2. Removal of sacrifices – Daniel 11:31
      3. Abomination of desolations – Daniel 11:31
      4. He will sway many people, even Jews – Daniel 11:32, 34
      5. Many will resist him – Daniel 11:32-33
      6. A “little help” refers to the temporary successes of the Maccabean revolt under Mattathias and his son Judas (1 Maccabees 2:15-28, 42-48, 3:11-12,23-26, 4:12-15)
    6. Wickedness: he claimed to be Theos Epiphanes – Daniel 11:36-39
      1. He took the place of God
      2. The temple was dedicated to Zeus
    7. Character: a summary of Antiochus Epiphanes – Daniel 11:40-45
      1. After the fourth beast and kingdom
      2. The king of the south is Ptolemy VI
      3. The king of the north is Antiochus
      4. An all-out attack with chariots…
      5. The “countries” refers to those between Syria and Egypt
      6. They will enter Palestine – Daniel 11:41
      7. Mentioning of Edom, Moab and Ammon
        1. Surprising since using their common name is not customary
        2. Especially since Moab was not a nation until the time of Antiochus.
        3. Moab and Ammon are mentioned as taking up arms against Judah following Antiochus’ policies (1 Maccabees 5:3,6)
        4. These are traditional enemies of Judah & included by scribes
      8. Reference point of Hellenizing Jews as in – Daniel 11:39 not being dealt with as severely as those loyal to God
        1. Daniel 11:37-39 * enlargement of 36
        2. Daniel 11:41-45 * enlargement of 40
        3. Daniel 11:42 * explanation – Daniel 11:40
      9. Rumors from east and north – Daniel 11:43-44
        1. Libya is west of Egypt
        2. Ethiopia is south of Egypt
        3. Representing the remotest parts of the Egyptian empire
        4. Compared to – Daniel 11:29-30 * in wrath
      10. Between the seas and mountain – Daniel 11:45
        1. Antiochus IV actually died in Persia in 164 BC (1 Maccabees 3:31-37, 6:1-16)
        2. His defeat was determined and he will come to an end and his defeat is immanent.

The King Deliverer – Daniel 12:1-4

  1. This is connected to the beginning of chapter 10
  2. If the student sees Antiochus Epiphanes in the previous section, you will see him here.
    1. This is either the end of Antiochus or the end of time: remember the timeless nature of apocalyptic literature.
    2. What will happen to those slain by Antiochus?
      1. Suffering – Daniel 12:1
      2. Separation: Many (why not all?) will be raised – Daniel 12:2
        1. Earliest reference to resurrection from the grave
        2. The only reference to everlasting life in the OT is here – Daniel 12:2
      3. Shining: like stars – Daniel 12:3
      4. Shame – and contempt on those who turned from God to Antiochus IV
      5. Sealing: the words – Daniel 12:4 * as in – Daniel 8:26, 9:24, 6:17
      6. There will be frantic search for an explanation – Daniel 12:4

A Vision at the River – Daniel 12:5-13

  1. Two others standing on each side of the river – Daniel 12:5
  2. A man dressed in linen – Daniel 12:6-13
    1. Above the waters means superiority
    2. How long? – Daniel 12:6, 8:13
      1. Wonders: the activities of Antiochus – Daniel 11:36 fearful and monstrous things
      2. The answer – Daniel 12:7
        1. Three and one half periods of time (years).
        2. The time from the stopping of sacrifices and the rededication of the temple was three years and 10 days.
        3. The Jews power being destroyed – Daniel 12:7
    3. Daniel still does not understand – Daniel 12:8
      1. The death of Antiochus IV will not bring peace although Antiochus V did allow religious freedom.
      2. The answer – Daniel 12:9-13
        1. Rehearsal of the vision – Daniel 12:10-11
          1. Antiochus – Daniel 11:33, 35
          2. 1290 days in Revelation 11:3, 12:6 * Revelation 12:6 is 1260 (plus 30 more days)
            1. Discontinued sacrifices
            2. Re-establishment of worship
            3. Deliverance from persecution
          3. 1335 days (1290 days plus another 45 days)
            1. Rededication of temple?
            2. Beginning of righteousness?
        2. Blessing – Daniel 12:12
        3. Promise – Daniel 12:13
          1. Live your life and don’t worry
          2. You will die but will be raised
          3. What an end to a book of hope!

Language of the book:
Hebrew = 1:1-2:4a, 8:1-12:13
Aramaic = 2:4b-7:28

A lot of the historical information is from John Joseph Owens in the Broadman Commentary, Vol.6, 1971, pp.373-460. Some outline is from the Ryrie Study Bible.

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